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مُساهمةموضوع: Natural.sources   الجمعة نوفمبر 25, 2011 8:14 pm

.Natural sources :


I.1.soil conservation:
Algeria is lightly forested with less than 2 percent of its area covered by either forest or other wooded land. All of the country's forest and arable land is in a broad coastal strip, around 400 kilometers wide. The rest of Algeria is Saharan with vegetation comprising sparse Acacia SPP desert grasses. Northern Algeria has been extensively deforested, with around half the country's forest area being cleared between 1935 and 1962. The country's high forests comprise remnant stands of mainly Pinups, Quarks and Cadres species, mainly on the slopes of the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas. Other forested areas include large tracts of Marquis Scrub. Algeria has established an extensive tract of plantation forests as part of its "Green Dam" project to protect against desertification. The plan requires the eventual establishment of a 3 million hectare band of plantations as a barrier to the Sahara. Pinups halfpennies is presently the most common species planted. Algeria has an extensive protected area system including 10 national parks. Around 4 percent of the country's forests are inside protected areas.

I.1.a/ The green dam:

In many African countries, the people are struggling against
Desertification.
The Algerian Government once thought of facing the problem
Squarely, building a "green dam".
Twelve million trees were planted in an attempt to stop the
Sahara Desert from marching on. Yet, the desert won the match.
A Tuareg legend says the Sahara is like a sleeping giant, who,
when it wakes up and looks at you, instantly burns you down to
ashes.
The Sahara woke up, moved around the obstacle and went on,
leaving behind the "green dam" dry and dead.
So Algeria was left with the Atlantis Valley, that used to be the
tree granary of the nation, as a vast expanse of barren land.
Millions of people were left homeless, landless, without any
means of livelihood.
Programme, 67 million people in North Africa and 145 million in
the Sahel are severely affected by desertification.
This means that more than 200 million people are now forced to
move towards the areas with enough water to sustain their lives.
In this way, the long-held equilibrium between nomadic and
sedentary people is lost, and as a consequence social tensions
are building up.

Water conservation :

Algeria is one of a number of African nations Johns Hopkins University predicts to have a ratio of water annually available per person at less than 1,000 cubic metres in 2025, a daunting figure when experts consider a country "water-stressed" at below 1,700 cubic metres available per person.

Although government officials are working with international experts to increase water supplies to both rural and urban areas the task remains difficult.

"There are many construction sites that need to be opened in the water supply sector because our natural resources are not sufficient," says Water Resources Minister Abdelmadjid Attar. "We are obliged to appeal to foreign companies as much for material needs as for a desire to master new technologies."

Government officials are in a race against time to maximize the already scant water resources. Around 1.5m dinars are earmarked by the Algerian government to improve hydro-infrastructures. Building new dams, reducing dam silting, used-water treatments, preventing water loss and waste and desalinization projects are some the efforts underway.

To repair the estimated 30 per cent of water pipes in Algeria that leak, the government has earmarked 53 billion dinars. Projects are underway in Algiers and Oran, with an additional 16 of the 40 cities slated for repairs targeted in the next phase.

On the coasts, about 50 desalinization facilities are under construction to supply water. Attar says the process is one of the major alternative technologies being utilized by Algeria because dams are only sufficient to keep shortages at current levels
.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Natural.sources   الجمعة نوفمبر 25, 2011 8:23 pm

As many as 50 dams and other water-containing structures are also under construction to meet the Ministry of Water's goal of 12 billion cubic metres of water collected annually by Algeria. Currently, only 5 billion cubic metres are collected annually.

Years of drought have depleted ground water supplies and dam reserves. Additionally, Algeria suffers from substandard management of water utilities and other existing networks.

An organization with expertise in managing water purification equipment does not exist, contributing to the shutting down of 42 of 53 such plants in Algeria. National Water Treatment Office General Director Ali Bekkouche said Algeria understands wastewater management, but that international partners would help.

In order to manage all this hydraulic sector construction, two government agencies were created. Goals of the agencies include fostering annual and multi-annual investment programmes and undertaking projects through concessions or any form of partnership
A December 2004 meeting in Tipaza of Mediterranean countries under the auspices of the 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands announced that 16 new Algerian areas are officially classified as wetlands of international importance, a designation that protects them from destruction and overuse.

Conservationists are excited about the decision.

"This is exciting news for freshwater conservation in the region," says World Wildlife Federation's Francesca Antonelli, adding that Algeria is a North African leader in wetland conservation.

Involvement in Algerian water management is not just restricted to international corporations and global conservation organizations, individuals are also making a positive impact.

American student Greg Sanz learned from his Algerian hairdresser in 2002 that his village well had dried up and the only water source was a pipeline being illegally siphoned before the water reached the people..

Moved by the story, Sanz spoke with his father, an international oil consultant, about his idea of drilling a new well. His father directed him to Sonatrach, who suggested contacting Energy and Mining Minister Chakib Khelil. Within two years after Sanz contacted Khelil, contractors drilled a new well for the village.

Sanz was greeted as a hero when he recently visited Tazrout but more work needs to be done. Infrastructure is still needed to bring water from the well to the village's main reservoirs. The student will appeal to Algerian officials to finish the project and end the need for villagers to carry water long distances.

Speaking about the future of the water situation in Algeria, National Agency for Dams general director Abdelnaceur Kalli is very positive.

"I am very optimistic about the next ten years because, compared to the past we will be in a very good position."

Wild life conservation:

The wildlife of Algeria includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.

The varied vegetation of Algeria includes coastal, mountainous and grassy desert-like regions which all support a wide range of wildlife. Many of the creatures comprising the Algerian wildlife live in close proximity to civilisation. The most commonly seen animals include the wild boars, jackals, and gazelles, although it is not common to spot fennecs, (foxes), and jerboas. Algeria also has few panther, leopard and cheetah populations but these are seldom seen.

Barbary macaques and a variety of other bird species make the country an attraction for bird watchers. Snakes, monitor lizards, and numerous other reptiles can be found living among an array of rodents throughout the semi arid regions of Algeria

Wildlife in Algeria is exotic and varied. The diverse forms of vegetation are conducive to the growth and development of a variety of Wildlife in Algeria in Africa.

Coastal, mountainous and grassy desert-like areas ****ter exotic Wildlife in Algeria. You can catch amazing glimpses of the Algeria wildlife on extensive wildlife Algeria tours.

Algerian wildlife is diverse. The major wildlife species in Algeria feature wild boars, jackals and gazelles. You can also spot fennecs (foxes) and jerboas on exciting wildlife tours in Algeria. Algeria is also home to small panthers, leopard and cheetahs. Some of the other exotic species include Chalcides mauritanicus, Chalcides minutus, Fennec, Golden Jackal, Leopard, Cheetah, Marsh Mongoose And Red Fox to name a few.

Wildlife in Algeria includes a variety of avian acrobats, making it a birdwatcher's paradise. The most commonly viewed avian species are that of the Barbary macaques and other varieties of birds. A haven for bird watchers, Algeria is a top tourist destination in Africa. You can also see a variety of cold blooded animals on exotic wildlife tours to Algeria. Amongst the most commonly found cold blooded animals, snakes, monitor lizards and a variety of other reptiles are the most popular. Their common habitats are usually found along the semi-arid regions of Algeria. They can also be found living with the rodents.

Wildlife in Algeria includes a variety of endangered species. These rare animals are well preserved under the Algerian law. The most endangered animals feature the serval. A little smaller than a leopard, the serval has long and elegant ears and belongs to the cat family. These lovely animals are still found in the northern parts of Algeria, though much lesser in number.

The Mediterranean monk seal is another popular name amongst the endangered species in Algeria. These seals dwell in caves and along the coast of Algeria. Over-fishing and pollution have led to the diminishing number of these lovely animals. Algerian wild dogs and a number of bat species are also regarded as some of the most endangered species.

Algerian wildlife protection programs are organized with the aim of promoting and preserving the Wildlife in Algeria.
Algeria is also home to a number of endangered species which are currently protected under Algerian law. The country's most endangered animal is the serval, a beautiful, wild feline which is larger than a domestic cat but smaller than a leopard. The serval has the longest legs in the cat family and its coat is characterized by leopard-like spots. Very few of these elegant creatures still exist in the northern parts of Algeria.

Another creature that is endangered in Algeria is the Mediterranean monk seal. These seals live in caves and in rocky outcrops along the coast of Algeria and their numbers have been made scarce by over-fishing and pollution. Monk seals do not give birth often and usually have only one pup, which means attempts to increase the seal population are slow and difficult. Besides the serval and seals, Algerian wild dogs and a species of bat are also considered to be endangered


Serval
Striped Hyena
The avifauna –birds- of Algeria includes a total of 397 species, of which 1 is endemic, 4 have been introduced by humans, and 13 are rare or accidental. 8 species listed are extirpated in Algeria and are not included in the species count. 12 species are globally threatened

Conservation of open spaces and forests:

Algeria hs so many open spaces and forests such as :
Belzma National Park
The Belzma National Park is one of the most important national parks of Algeria. It is located in Batna Province. Created in 1984, it stretches over an area of 262.5 km², the climate ranges from a cool subhumid climate to a dry semi-arid climate, it contains 447 species of flora (14% of the national total) and 309 species of fauna, of which 59 are protected species

.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Natural.sources   السبت نوفمبر 26, 2011 5:37 pm


Chréa National Park
The Chréa National Park is one of the smallest national national parks of Algeria. It is located in Blida Province, named after Chréa, a town near this park. The park, located in a mountainous area known as the Blidean Atlas (which is part of the Tell Atlas) includes the ski station of Chréa, one of the few ski stations in Africa where skiing can be done on real snow, and the grotto of Chiffa. It is home to a varied flora and fauna, including its old Atlas Cedar forests, where many Barbary Macaques live
.
Djurdjura National Park
The national park of Djurdjura is one of the national parks of Algeria. It is located in Kabylia, named after the Djurdjura mountain chain. Nearby cities include Tizi Ouzou (to the north) and Bouïra (to the south). The park is home to a very broken tectonics, as well as many forests, grottoes, gorges, and an important fauna.

El Kala National Park
The national park of El Kala is one of the national parks of Algeria, in the extreme north-east of the country. It is home to several lakes (including Lake Tonga, whose name is unrelated to Tonga) and a unique ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin, it was created in 1983 and recognized as a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 1990. This park is treatened by the creation of a highway in Algeria, which would treathen the rare animals and plants of the park. It has been proposed that the highway should avoid this region and go further south

Mineral resources conservation:
Algeria's nonfuel minerals were used extensively as raw material for domestic manufacturing, but some, such as high-grade iron ore, phosphate, mercury, and zinc, have also been exported since the early 1970s. The state mining and prospecting corporation, the National Company for Mineral Research and Exploration (Société Nationale de Recherches et d'Exploitations Minières), was established in 1967. As a result of the government's decentralization policy, the company was restructured in 1983 into separate production and distribution entities. The most important of these were an iron ore and phosphate company known as Ferphos, which had three production units and a port complex at Annaba, and another company called Erem that specialized in conducting mineral research at Boumerdas on the Mediterranean Sea and Tamanrasset in the south
Iron ore is found at Beni Saf in the northwest and the Ouenza and Bou Khadra region near the eastern border. Production levels have tended to vary significantly over the years, fluctuating between 1 million and 2 million tons between the early 1970s and the early 1990s. The deposits at Ouenza represent 75 percent of total production and have been exported primarily to Italy and Britain. However, there are massive reserves of medium-grade ore at Gara Djebilet, near Tindouf in the west. These deposits of an estimated 2,000 million tons of medium-grade ore have been said to be the largest in the Arab world. The most significant zinc deposits have been found at the mountain of El Abed near the Algerian-Moroccan border and at Kherzet-Youssef in the Sétif region. Lead is also mined at El Abed and Kherzet-Youssef.

The large phosphate deposits at Djebel Onk in the northeast have been mined since the early 1960s; phosphate rock output reached 1.3 million tons in 1988. The total was almost evenly divided between export (primarily to France and Spain) and local consumption or processing at the Annaba fertilizer plant, approximately 350 kilometers away. Most major mines are linked by rail to Algeria's ports. Djebel Onk phosphate mines near the Tunisian border, as well as the Ouenza iron ore mines, are linked by electric rail line to Annaba. Zinc and lead mines at El Abed near the Moroccan border in the west are linked to Oran.

Monuments conservation

Casbah

The Casbah is specifically the citadel of Algiers and the traditional quarter clustered round it. More generally, kasbah denotes the walled citadel of many North African cities and towns. The word made its way into English from French in the late 19th century In Rabat, the capital of Morocco since 1912, the Casbah of the Oudaya is the military barracks encircled by walls with gates, built in the 16th and 17th centuries on ancient foundations.
The Casbah of Algiers is founded on the ruins of old Icosium. It is a small city which, built on a hill, goes down towards the sea, divided in two: the High city and the Low city. One finds there masonries and mosques of the 17th century; Ketchaoua mosque (built in 1794 by the Dey Baba Hassan) flanked of two minarets, mosque el Djedid (1660, at the time of Turkish regency) with its large finished ovoid cupola points some and its four coupolettes, mosque El Kébir (oldest of the mosques, it was built by almoravide Youssef Ibn Tachfin and rebuilt later in 1794), mosque Ali Betchnin (Raïs, 1623), Dar Aziza, palate of Jénina. To outsiders, the Casbah appears to be a confusing labyrinth of lanes and dead-end alleys flanked by picturesque houses; however if one loses oneself there, it is enough to go down again towards the sea to reposition oneself
It's considered as a world heritage by the UNESCO .
This precious heritage is threatened of falling apart andthe algerian government is now looking for solutions to forbid that from happening.

Human resources :

Health :
Health in Algeria, according to information from a March 6, 2006 United States report, does not compare well with the developed world. Algeria has inadequate numbers of physicians (one per 1,000 people) and hospital beds (2.1 per 1,000 people) and poor access to water (87 percent of the population) and sanitation (92 percent of the population). Given Algeria’s young population, policy favors preventive health care and clinics over hospitals. In keeping with this policy, the government maintains an immunization program. However, poor sanitation and unclean water still cause tuberculosis, hepatitis, measles, typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. In 2003 about 0.10 percent of the population aged 15–49 was living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The poor generally receive health care free of charge, but the wealthy pay for care according to a sliding scale. Access to health care is enhanced by the requirement that doctors and dentists work in public health for at least five years. However, doctors are more easily found in the cities of the north than in the southern Sahara region.
Algeria long enjoyed a well-run health care system, which was free of charge for its users. This system, one of the most impressive in the third world, faced economic and administrative problems in the late 1980s. The Islamist groups quickly built up a competing and far more effective system. This was one of the reasons for the fast-growing popularity of the Islamists in this decade. Algeria has one doctor for each 1,200 inhabitants.
The educational system of Algeria has mostly been of good quality, and has been going through a process of Arabization starting with independence in 1962. Schooling is compulsory, lasts 9 years, and is attended by almost all Algerian children (primary: 97% of boys, 91% of girls).
Algeria has 10 universities, 7 university centres and a number of technical colleges with about 350,000 students (figures are from 1995/6, no new ones as of 2005).
Education:
Education in Algeria is free and officially compulsory for Algerians up to age 16, but actual enrollment falls far short of 100 percent. Enrollment drops off sharply from primary to secondary school. In fact, only about half the eligible population is enrolled in secondary school, which consists of two three-year cycles beginning at age 12In addition, Algeria has 10 universities, seven university centers (centers universitaires), and several technical colleges. The primary ******** of school instruction is Arabic, but Berber-******** instruction has been permitted since 2003, in part to ease reliance on foreign teachers but also in response to complaints about Arabization.

As of 2008, Algeria's literacy rate is 69–70 percent, higher than those of Morocco and Egypt but subpar by international standards The breakdown by gender is 79 percent for males and 61 percent for females. A lag persists for women despite progress since independence in 1962. Education consumes one-quarter of the national budget. Algeria faces a shortage of teachers as a result of the doubling in the number of eligible children and young adults in the last 12 years.
Algeria

Economy
: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues 25% of GDP and almost all export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989 the government launched a comprehensive IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward economic adjustment in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993 a new government was formed and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Burdened with a heavy foreign debt Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund facility. Progress on economic reform a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995 and oil and gas sector expansion have contributed to a recovery since 1995. Investments in developing hydrocarbon resources are likely to maintain growth and export earnings. Continuing but gradual government efforts to attract foreign and domestic investment outside that sector seek to diversify the economy and tackle problems of high unemployment and falling living standards problems as yet untouched by the macroeconomic turnaround
The Culture of Algeria
Algeria’s culture is strongly influenced by its religion, Islam, although in the past it was mainly influenced by the French culture.
Hospitality is part of the culture of Algeria as it is in the rest of the Arab world.
Women must cover their heads and bodies.
In the main cities of Algeria people are used to the Western culture, but in the south and rural areas the follow more traditional practices.
Items that are mostly sold in Algeria are Berber rugs, Sahara fabrics, traditional pottery, jewelry, copper and the traditional clothing of the country.
The most important library in Algeria is the National Library founded in 1835 in the city of Alger.
In the capital you will find the Museums of Prehistory and Ethnography, the National Archeological Museum and the National Museum of Fine Arts
Soil
:
* The use of modern irrigation technology is encouraged in order to preserve water resources throughout Algeria.
*-Southern sand dune is fixed (Biskra-Hassi Massoud...)
* 500 km of farmland is retabilitated in the north.
*The farmers are educated about the right way to use the pesticides and fertilizers in the agricultural field bye the Algerian government.

b- Water:
*Construction of dams to recharge groundwater, and water monitoring systems and rain in the north (algers,Telemcen,Oran...) olso in the south for e.g.;Ghardaïa
*Stimulating economic and financial waste-water treatment
*-Control of fishing on a regular basis.

C-Mineral Resources:
*The using of the mineral resources will be reduced if :
-The people who mines and digs for minerals will be stopped .
- Plastics will be used in the place of minerals like aluminium...
-This mineral resources will be changed by another energy like the solar energy or bye the energy of winds...
d-Monuments:
*the General Command of the Algerian National Gendarmerie program information Introduced to the
protection of monuments and historical legacies in Algeria
Human resources:
a-Health:
*Health services are improved, especially in remote areas.
* 250 hospital construction project in remote areas and deserts
*rehabilitation, medical and social support for people with disabilities, the government has increased the number of care institutions, and also provides financial support for plans to reduce the financial burden borne by the disabled and their families, the Government provides features 110 disability of thousands of Algerians , medical assistance and medical expenses annually to 119 thousand Them. The plans also support self-support loans and educational assistance and support to assistive devices and also provide them with procedures to lift their burdens such as tax breaks and discounts on charges for the use of public facilities.
* to provide the necessary meaof the hospitals.
*-
b-Education:
*-Building schools especially in remote regions.
*-All the schools will be providing with computers.
*-Building private schools to wipe out illiteracy, especially in areas remote and deserts.
*-The education of the rural women.
d-Culture:
*-Protection of cultural rights in two key areas. The first is Copyright (copyrights), which includes all forms of literary and artistic Alonchae such as writing, music, film and other rights include the moral and material. The monitor and extent of the Bern Convention for the protection of the rights and a physical for 70 year from the death of the artist's rights are substantive moral never-ending..

the destruction of the fixed or alteration of or damage to or distortion of writing or engraving or change the features is prohibited, also the advertising or flinging signs in the areas of archaeological and historic buildings registeredis prohibited.
Article 7 - --
To be planning projects in developing cities and villages, expansion or Tjamilha or the division of land to build the conservation of monuments and areas where, according to the decision of the competent effects, and may not be Adoption of planning projects or division in which the scope of the effects only after the approval of the competent effects.
On this side effects competent to locate the archaeological sites and published in the Official Gazette and notify the competent authority and planning division.
- Article 8 --
May not be granted building permits and restoration in areas near archaeological sites and historic buildings only after obtaining the approval of the competent effects to ensure the establishment of modern buildings on pace appropriate to the nature of the archaeological.
In the case of the restoration and maintenance of mosques be approved by the Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs.
- Article 48 --
Punishable by imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years and a fine
A - The archeology or assisted or abetted by without a license.
B - The demolition or to destroy or sabotage or any distortion effects, including a change in its character or separate any part of it.
C - have stolen or part of the impact of state-owned, or had participated in hiding or anything like that.
The development and implementation of the national program to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
Sensitize citizens the importance of vegetation in general and in particular Algappoe
to the human component, particularly with regard to education
Encourage the use of modern irrigation technology in order to preserve water resources;
Rationalizing the use of pesticides and fertilizers in the agricultural field to find solutions and mechanisms for compromise between the requirements of the requirements for lifting agricultural productivity and the need to preserve the environment and natural resources, including the maintenance and development of national biodiversity

Integration of young people in all environmental
• Rational measure of water

Maintaining the existing forests before thinking afforestation;
Solving the problems of people of the mountainous areas in order to reduce the over-exploitation of forests in these areas through holding workshops to study this problem;
Offset some of the effects of the drought-affected forest species capable of withstanding the effects of this

Stimulating economic and financial waste-water treatment
Control of fishing on a regular basis
Algerian education system

It was the Organization for Education after independence terms and basic functions:
1,1. The first period (1962-1976):
This is a transitional period, where it was necessary to ensure the entry only school to enter the mutations move out in preparation for the establishment of the educational system copes with the development directions and key priorities for this period:
- Education in the establishment of educational facilities, and expanded to remote areas.
- Education Butcher frames.
- Air content of education inherited from the French educational system.
- Muslim-out of education.
The result was a rise in enrollment rates among school-age children which jumped from 20% during the first start of the school after independence to 70% at the end of the stage.
2.1. The second period (from 1976):
Period began issuing Order No. 76-35 of April 16, 1976 includes the organization of education in Algeria. Which introduced radical reforms in the education system in the direction more in tune with the profound changes in economic and social development.
He dedicated the previous command, and the nature of compulsory free primary education and content for 9 years, and laid down the choices and trends of the national education in mind:
- Establish a national system in terms of original content, frameworks and programs.
- Democracy made available in an integrated opportunities for all children of Algerians.
Open to the science and technology.
Levels of education
- Preparatory education is not compulsory,
- Basic education is compulsory and free for 9 years,
- General secondary education,
- Secondary technical education.
And proceeded to the general application of the provisions of this command from the academic year 1980-1981, and remains so now is the frame of reference for any project that aims to introduce improvements and modifications to the educational system.
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